Papaya and Sick People

When we decide to explore plant based medicine, safety is the number one consideration. Mission critical is do no harm.

Many years ago, while working in Uganda, a friend with connections agreed with this hypothesis. He commissioned a scientific study to determine the LD50 of papaya.

LD50 is the lethal dose which kills 50% of the subjects. This test is performed using laboratory rodents. Not very nice but progress is costly.

Following are the results and recommendations. Please consider this scientific evidence as you consider recommending papaya for your patients. I believe they will thank you. I have benefited big time from this. I eat a 3-4 inch square of fresh leaf daily while in the tropics. My stomach is very strong as a result!! No missed days of work or missed nights sleep for emergency visits. No staying close to the washroom. No smooth muscle relaxants. Just smooth sailing!!

The link below goes to an LD50 study done at the Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda


Short term missions and, yes, diarrhea!!

Most missionary and many adventurous travelers have had a bout of Montezuma’s revenge, otherwise known as dysentery, diarrhea, the scoots, Aztec two step, Basra belly, Rangoon runs, Tokyo trots, you get the idea!
It is my contention that this misfortune is largely avoidable. Which is good news unless you enjoy trotting!
Conventional prophylaxis include DUKORAL (registered trademark)and Pepto Bismal (see warnings) while treatment includes peristaltic inhibitors like Immodium. These are all options for prevention and/or treatment.
This website has some good information:

Nature’s Pharmacy

Different body types seem to tolerate discomfort at varying levels. I have a type A body – a little tense at the best of times. So cramping does not suit me at all.
During my many missions trips, I have discovered plant based treatment options. Ideal for me, being financially judicial, and the citizenry of many developing nations who have economic constraints. Working through and with a group called Action for Natural Medicine, anamed,,I have discovered that eating of a 2 inch square piece of papaya leaf every day reduces the chances of acquiring the runs. Also, regularly drinking papaya tea provides the same active ingredient.
Papaya trees are very common and easy to grow in the tropical climate. They produce prodigious amounts of greenery (leaves) and thus provide lots of doses of medicine per hectare.
The leaves are also a good treatment for malaria, which is a topic for another day.
The reason for this blog post is to determine if there is sufficient interest in papaya tea to warrant the creation of a business. This enterprise would supply missionaries and travelers with a specified supply of papaya leaf tea bags to improve health outcomes while traveling abroad.
Health is never a guarantee, but taking proven preventative measures is advisable. This business would itself be a mission to those producing the product. Creating life giving work to those who benefit from same.
Please feel free to do your own research as there are many scientific studies which prove the efficacy of this approach. Then provide me with your feedback. I am looking for organisations and individuals who are wishing to support missions while doing same, or enjoying their travels – through using a proven, plant based approach to health care.
No pricing strategy is currently in place.
Thank you in advance for your feedback, as we move forward to better health outcomes.

Kind regards, Tim Wise

Ecological Energy Production in Haiti

Electricity in rural settings is a luxury many cannot afford. On a recent trip to Haiti I began the process of electricity production using water power – zero emissions power based on the water cycle!

Following is the video of the water wheel. It sits on the head waters of a canal system which encourages agricultural production. In time this water wheel will have one or several 350 watt generator(s) attached. It will provide power to the orphanage, power a pump providing water to the garden and a telephone charging station – the latter essential to village life!!

I planted many moringa trees in our established garden and cannot believe the growth rate of those trees. Check out this photo of one days growth (about 1.5 inches) after a 20 minute rain the night before. We use terracing and vetiver grass to hold rain water on the hillside – very good techniques!!

photo to come later


Why Plant based Health Options? Part 2

Last time we explored 3 markers for considering health benefits and risks – clinical effect, side effect and lethal dose 50. We discovered that when using papaya leaf that the dosage level from one marker to the next is very large, making the possibility of negative results highly unlikely. In a lethal dose 50 study done by Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda, the lethal dose 50 test found that this plant is safe according to EU (European Union) and WHO (World Health Organisation) standards.

Let us consider a concept called “poorification” which results when chemicals are isolated from their naturally occurring neighbours. The body is highly complex, to make a gross understatement. Many chemicals involved in healing receive synergistic effects from companion chemicals found in the plants from which they are derived. Therefore, poorification occurs when plant based chemicals are removed from plants and purified.

How will we successfully minimize the negative economic effects of such diseases as malaria? Let us look at the numbers. In Uganda, where malaria is endemic, people get this life threatening disease twice annually on the average. With over 40 million people they have over 80 million cases of malaria annually!! Plants can provide millions of doses of medicine, per hectare!!, making this treatment option a workable solution.

What about the drawbacks? I have been hard pressed to find any and would welcome any stories, anecdotal or otherwise, from you. I know that in countries where post mortems are not routine, that if a person tries a treatment then dies of a totally unrelated cause, that the treatment can be seen as the cause of death. This is a potential drawback.

Often where money is a constraint, people will wait until they are almost dead to go to a clinic. Perhaps a week. Once at the clinic they frequently die as the disease was too far advanced to treat. With plant based options people can treat themselves at early onset, improving their chance of surviving, and thriving! Treatment time period is commonly 3 days. Thus the person can try two dosage levels in an attempt to get a clinical effect before they would normally go to the hospital.
People must understand that symptoms which might indicate a particular disease may be something else and they need to remain open to the need to go to hospital or a clinic to seek treatment and or diagnosis.

Please take some time to research such options and consider your ability to make positive change through being informed.

Kind Regards

Why Plant based Health Options?

The answer to this question may take at two directions – domestic and developing countries. We will look primarily at developing countries. The old 80/20 rule may apply here – 20 percent of the worlds population has 80 percent of the money. So the developed world has plenty of ability to buy produced health options.
What about our neighbours in developing countries who do not have this option? Are they denied health for this reason? I contend not. Plants have provided the chemical basis for 80-85 percent of the pharmaceutical chemical preparations we enjoy. Did men formulated all the chemicals that provide us with health?
Some pills during the evolution of the pharmaceutical industry have contained plant material as the health giving agent. Why not cut out the middle man?
Dosage is a big reason. How do we ensure people do not harm themselves? I cannot comment on a broad variety of plant based options, but I can about papaya leaf which can treat two of the 4 big killers – malaria and dysentery, plus worms.
There are at least three dosage levels to consider. Clinical effect, where the plant material provides the desired health effect. Side effect, where the chemical ingestion causes a negative effect, these are many. And lethal dose 50, which is the dosage at which 50 percent of the animals in the experiment are killed, resulting in a dosage, generally milograms per kilo of body weight, which is dangerous.
With papaya, the difference from one level to the next is in the magnitude of 10 to 20 times. A piece of leaf the size of ones palm will give a clinical effect whereas 7-8 full sized leaves are required for a side effect. This gives great latitude for dosage and minimizes the chance of side effects.
Please research and consider so you may be open to learning and feeling confident suggesting plant based options for people who have no other options.
There is so much more which could be said, so feel free to contact me with any questions you may have. Please see . Anamed, Action for Natural Medicine, is a German based organization that researches and promotes plant based health options.
Research is needed into these plant based options, but there is nothing to sell, only economies to be built!!

Kind Regards

February Followup – Haiti

The month in Haiti was fantastic – and too short!!

Following are several photos and explanations


Those moringa trees behind the guys were planted 14 months previous and are over 20 feet tall. These trees provide a good supply of seeds. Some of the original trees were kept pruned at 6 feet, forming a hedge, which provides the sprouts that people like to eat – below you see them on the table. This table is in the Children’s Lifeline canteen where about 2,800 meals are prepared – daily!!

Children's Lifeline Canteen

Children’s Lifeline Canteen

The new developments during this visit included a terracing demonstration – great way to reduce erosion – the number one agricultural issue on the globe! Haiti does not lack rocks for this intervention.


We created a moringa leaf drier. A product for local consumption and medical intervention for malnourished children can be generated in this drier. The sloping frontal section faces south, creating the heat and draft required to dry the product.


This view of the back shows the shelves where leaves are dried.


I experimented, successfully, using cardboard boxes as mulch to reduce moisture loss from the soil surface while seeds sprouted and trees were established. The boxes were simply torn to remove the ground cover where the trees sprouted – thus providing light for the seedling and ongoing mulch and moisture retention while trees continued to develop. Very good technology!! Rats – no photos.

Erosion in mountainous areas has been identified as an international issue. These braced cardboard dams will hold soil and water, creating a level area behind. The green foliage you see will root, creating a living wall. Nature provides many low cost options to improve soil retention and agricultural outcomes.


During my last visit I spoke with Dr Carmel about people using papaya leaves and leaf tea to reduce stomach aches and stomach worms. She told me she has suggested it to many of her clients. These people have reported positive results. See my posts on this topic. Nature provides a ready, ongoing supply of remedies to every day health issues.

Any questions or feedback?? Look forward to hearing from you.

Kind Regards, Tim

Off to Haiti, 2015

I am once again privileged to be able to take a month to spend in Haiti.

Children’s Lifeline,, has asked me to do agricultural education with the local community. I am currently thinking about using a 3 square model – composting, trees and vegetables being the 3 components.

Covering the soil with mulch or compost in tropical climates helps reduce the effect of intense sunshine. This improves the microbial life and the soils fertility.

Thanks for your interest in reducing poverty, disease and improving food security. I hope my postings have helped you thrive.

Take a little ride up the road to Children’s Lifeline compound – hang on!!!

Kind Regards, Tim

Great News from Haiti

Wow, it’s been a while!! About a month ago I got home from an exhilarating trip to Haiti where we started hillside terracing for tree based agriculture – specifically moringa trees. This due to the many benefits of same. These trees will be used by Children’s Lifeline in their feeding program and to develop an export business of dried leaves.

The great news is that the rains have been regular since I left and the trees are thriving. I planted about 500 seeds which will yield a good number of trees.

Terracing in tropical, hilly places is a very powerful way to conserve rainfall and redevelop the ground water resources. The rain water, which would normally just flow off the hill causing erosion, is collected in trenches which are specially designed to follow the contours of the hill, which means the water can pool and generally finds its way into the soil. Particularly in Haiti where the soils are sandy and light.

Erosion is the number one agricultural problem in the world.

Wanted to share this great news! On another note, my Ugandan friend and his family are living in a banana fiber house, which is a bummer. I have contacted Habitat to see if they can help. Any ideas out there for a way to help them get better accommodation?

Cheers, Tim

Papaya Leaf Study from Kampala, Uganda

Several years ago I was able to get this study done at the Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. Hope you find it good bed time reading!! The tables do not translate into the blog but the other text is fine. Please let me know what you think.
papaya leaves for medical use
Preliminary Report


The role of plant/herbal medicines in the treatment and prevention of diseases is regaining its place in community health care. In Uganda a number of plants are currently used in the communities to treat and prevent diseases. One such plant medicine is the Carica papaya (pawpaw) leaves boiled and drunk every week to prevent malaria. The effectiveness of such medicines remains unknown due to lack of scientific evidence.

In this study the safety profile i.e. acute toxicity and sub chronic toxicity of the Carica papaya leaves was investigated using the WHO recommended laboratory animal test models and procedures. The findings in this study are useful guide for the clinical studies that may be conducted.

Preparation of the Extract.

The freshly harvested leaves of Carica papaya were weighed, chopped, and extracted in ethanol-acetic acid (90%+10%) solvent mixture by cold soaking for 5 days and filtered (This solvent mixture gives the highest yield of alkaloids and other active principles and also its polarity is closest to that of water a solvent used in the communities). The marc was discarded and the filtrate concentrated in an oven temperature of 50 degrees C to solid state. Known weights of the solid extracts were suspended in distilled water and the filtrates obtained. The filtrate was spanned at 3500 rev/min for five seconds and a clear supernatant obtained. The concentration of the supernatant was obtained by subtracting the total weight of the dry filter (residue) from the original extract weight suspended.

Single Dose / Acute Toxicity profile.

This test in addition to providing the degree of lethality of the medicine/extract also provides useful pharmacological and clinical effects resulting from doses administered by the oral route and one other route in lethal dose range to the test models. The test also aids the estimation of the median lethal dose, which is very useful in classification of the test substance based on its toxicity.

The median lethal dose therefore was determined by first obtaining the approximate median lethal doses for the intra-peritoneal (IP) and oral (PO) routes. Ten pairs of mice were administered doses 500mg/kg, 1500mg/kg, 2000mg/kg and 2500mg/kg by the ip route. Another set of 10 mice in pairs received by the oral route doses 1500mg/kg, 2500mg/kg, 5000mg/kg, 7500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg. The mice had been fasted for 18 hours. The mice were observed for 48 hours and the oral and IP dose that killed 50% of the mice gave the approximate median lethal doses (LD50). The IP route showed approximate LD50 at 1000mg/kg while the oral route gave two points 2500mg/kg and 7500mg/kg. A repeat of the oral dose gave more variations suggesting variable bioavailability due to possible variation in first pass effect following oral administration of the extract. Such various are observed when acetylcholine like alkaloids is administered to rodents by the oral route. A repeat of the IP dosing twice showed consistency in the observed effects.

The actual IP median dose was determined using doses chosen in such a way that five dose levels were used, one dose equivalent to the approximate median lethal dose by the oral route, two doses below and two doses above it. The doses used were 500mg/kg, 700mg/kg, 1000mg/kg, 1200mg/kg and 1500mg/kg. These doses were administered to five groups of six mice each while the sixth group of six mice received equivalent volume of distilled water. The median lethal dose was then determined by both the graphical and arithmetic methods described in fundamentals of experimental pharmacology by Ghosh(1984)

Repeated dose toxicity/ sub chronic Toxicity
This test provides toxicities and side effects that may arise from long-term use of a drug. Effects on major organs such as liver, kidneys, skin, bone marrow etc are studied.

In this study multiple or repeat dose effects were assessed by administering daily oral doses equivalent to 1%, 10% and 25% of the IP LD50 (843mg/kg) to young growing male rats aged 6 weeks for three weeks. Male rats (24) from the faculty of veterinary medicine Makerere University were purchased were acclimatised in the study laboratory for 1 week and were fed on standard diet (mice pencil).
On the study day, the rats were randomly divided into four groups of six each. The average group weight was determined and recorded. C. papaya leaf extract was prepared and administered in doses 8.4mg/kg, 84.3mg/kg and 210mg/kg to groups I, II and III respectively. Group IV the control group received daily equivalent volume of water. The weights of the animals were determined every third day and recorded. Other observations were recorded on the daily basis. At the end of the dosing phase the animals were anesthetized with chloroform and blood equivalent to 4 mls drawn from the venacava. The blood was sent for clinical chemistry and hematology. The animals died soon after all the blood was drawn. The major organs were weighed and together with the whole animal were sent to a veterinary pathologist for autopsy.

Approximate IP Median Lethal Dose Determination in Mice

No. per group
No. dead

Approximate IP Median Lethal Dose in Mice = 1000mg/kg

Approximate Oral Median Lethal Dose Determination in Mice
Dose (mg/kg)
No. per group
No. dead

Approximate Oral Median Lethal Dose in Mice was highly variable indicating possible variation in oral bioavailability of the active components.

Actual IP Median Lethal Dose Determination.
1 of 6
2 of 6
3 of 6
5 of 6
6 of 6

0 of 6

Corrected formula: For the 0% dead: 100(0.25/n)

For the 100% dead: 100((n-0.25)/n) Where n is the number of animals in the group.


o 8
b 6
i 4
t 2
s 0 ____________________________________________________________________
2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3
Log (dose)

Actual oral Median Lethal Dose by Graphical Method.

From the graph probit 5.0 corresponds to log Dose equal to 2.92

Antilog (2.92) = Median Lethal Dose = 831.76 mg/kg.

Standard error of LD50 = (LogLD84-LogLD16)/ √2N
(3.09-2.68)/ √12 = 0.41/3.46 = 0.12

Actual Median lethal dose by the arithmetic method described by Karber.

Dose (mg/kg)
No. of Mice
Dose diff- erence (a)
Mean Mort- ality (b)
Product (axb)




LD50 = 1500-(3350/6) = 1500 – 558.33 = 941.67mg/kg.

The two methods show that the median lethal dose, which is a measure of acute toxicity / single dose toxicity, lies between 800mg/kg to 1000mg/kg for the IP route.

The approximate oral bioavailability of the extract in mice is 2.5. The estimated oral median lethal is above 2500mg/kg.

Summary of Observations in mice following Acute Dose.
Inactivity/behaviour of the mice
Oral doses
Intraperitonial doses
1. Photophobia

2. Feeding

3. Aggressiveness

4. Respiration

5. Piloerection

6. Lacrimatiom

7. Diarrhoea

8. Urination

9. Convulsions
1. -Dose dependent

2. -↓sed & dose dependent

3. – none

4.-↑sed & dose dependent

5. None

6.- Marked and not dose dependent
7.- None

8. -Marked & not dose dependent
9. -Mild & not dose dependent
1. – Dose dependent

2.-same as oral

3.-same as oral

4.- same as oral

5.- same as oral

6. None

7. Same as oral

8. None

9. Same as oral

-At Doses greater 5000mg/kg by oral route, the effects occurred within 15-30 minutes while at lower doses the effects delayed by up to 5 hours.
-The effects were prolonged; some up to 10 hours indicating the drug probably has a long half-life/duration in the body.

-For intraperitoneal (IP) route, doses greater 500 mg/kg gave immediate effect.

-IP doses greater than 1000mg/kg were lethal within 30 to 60 minutes of administration.

-A unique difference noted was the diuretic (water and salt loss via urine) and diaphoretic (water and salt loss via sweat) effects by the oral route, which did not occur following the IP route doses. This could imply that the extract active ingredients under biotranformation when given by the oral route into active metabolite(s) with diuretic activities.

Growth Suppression Effects in Rat Models









Series=1=gpI, 2=gp II, 3=gp III, 4=gp IV

(A chart of the above results which is presented by the report writers, is not in this presentation.)

The drug suppresses growth significantly at IP doses greater than 200mg/kg administered on daily basis.

Haematology and Clinical chemistry Results for Selected Parameters in The Rat Models

WBC (cells/mm cubed)
N (%)
L (%)
RFT – creatine(mg/dl)

The drug had little effect on the major drug handling organs even at doses that suppress growth. All the parameters measured were within the normal/physiological ranges.

Observed Rat behaviour following repeated drug dosing compared to the control group.

– Overall the animals did not show significant behavioural changes.
Three animals died. 1 rat in group II and 2 rats in group III developed diarrhoea and lower abdominal tenderness and died. These deaths were not associated with the drug.
None of the animals developed injection necrosis.
All animals in group II and III lost weight; group III had marked weight loss.

Autopsy Results: pending from the pathologist.


1. The C. Papaya leaf oral median lethal dose is greater than 2000mg/kg. According to the World Health Organisation and the European Union, a herbal drug with median dose above 2000mg/kg is very safe for human use.
2. C. Papaya leaf extract taken daily in oral doses less than 200 x 2.5mg/kg or 0.5g/kg may not be toxic in human beings. i.e. up to 350g = or 8 average leaves decoction consumed daily by an adult should be safe.
3. C. Papaya taken in high doses daily may cause hypotension and electrolyte imbalance in the users.
4. C. papaya taken once a week as herbal tea against malaria should be safe but this claim should be verified by clinical investigations.

Ogwang P. Engeu 1, Tumusiime Ralph 1, Agwaya Moses 1 & Galiwago Budra 2.

1. Natural Chemotherapeutic Research Laboratory – Ministry of Health Kampala, PO Box 4864 Kampala.
2. Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Makerere University, PO Box 7062, Kampala.

Haiti Agricultural Program

Wow, two weeks have flashed by and the agricultural (ag) program at Mission Lifeline in Arachaie, Haiti has begun.

Adam and Jordani are the two capable Haitian men who will care for the gardens – both natural men of the soil who love plants and feel responsible for the project and its outcome.

The clearing of the land, rounding up the stones, subduing those small cactus plants with the barbed thorns, cutting back the euphorbia curalis trees which we named burning milk trees because the copious quantity of milky sap they ooze when cut or bent burns ones skin, and the sweating by the bucketful, were all part of the experience. The result was about half an acre of fertile land that will yield well with the addition of a little seed, water, mulch and local fertilizer ie well rotted manure. With temperatures in the mid thirties, the photo below shows the dramatic results of moringa seedlings started at the garden. Moringa is the second fastest growing tree in the world and provides a complete compliment of amino acids and vitamin C – a complete diet in one simple package!!

Mission Lifeline has done a tremendous job of developing personnel who are on time at the airport, understand our needs as guests, cook the most amazing food and kept our accommodation clean and tidy. The facilities were second to none, with beautiful tiled rooms and showers, ensuite kitchenette, screened windows for insect control and full laundry services.

The cultural angle included roosters crowing and dogs barking in the wee hours and the ladies from the kitchen who gather for prayer and worship at 4.30am prior to starting work at 5, Monday through Friday. Early to bed, greeting the sunrise and taking a siesta seemed to work well.

At our closing meeting, we determined that the risk factor to the garden was the persistent goats. Grazing animals represent a considerable deterant to agricultural development in many countries. Let’s hope the thorny fences hold up well.!

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